Subject : Muslims Invasion in India, When did Muslim Enter In India. 

History - Medival Period : 

Muhammad Ghori invaded India in 1175 A.D. After the conquest of Multan and Punjab, he advanced towards Delhi. The brave Rajput chiefs of northern India headed by Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated him in the First Battle of Terrain in 1191 A.D. After about a year, Muhammad Ghori came again to avenge his defeat. A furious battle was fought again in Terrain in 1192 A.D. in which the Rajputs were defeated and Prithvi Raj Chauhan was captured and put to death. The Second Battle of Terrain, however, proved to be a decisive battle that laid the foundations of Muslim rule in northern India.

Firstly called as the Delhi Sultanate : 

The period between 1206 A.D. and 1526 A.D. in India's history is known as the Delhi Sultanate period. During this period of over three hundred years, five dynasties ruled in Delhi. 

1) The Slave dynasty (1206-90), 

2) The Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), 

3) The Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), 

4) The Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), 

5) The Lodhi dynasty (1451-1526).

The Slave Dynasty

  1. Qutub-ud-din Aibak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori,
  2. Shams-ud-din Iltutmush (1211 to 1236)
  3. Nasir-ud-din Mahmud(1245-1265)
  4. Balban (Prime Minister of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud) - 1266 - 1287

The Khilji Dynasty : 

  1. Jalal-ud-din Khilji(1290-1296)
  2. Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296-1316)

The Tughlaq Dynasty : 

  1. Ghyasuddin Tughlaq, (1320-
  2.  Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq(-1351
  3. Feroz Tughlaq (1351-1388)

Sayyid Dynasty: 

  1. Khizar Khan (1414 A.D. to 1450 A.D.)
  2. Muhammad-bin-Farid

Lodhi Dynasty : 

  1. Buhlul Khan Lodhi (1451-1489 A.D.)
  2. Sikander Khan Lodhi (1489-1517 A.D.)
  3. Ibrahim Khan Lodhi (1489-1517 A.D.).

 Subject : British Rule in India From 1600 - 1947 

Indian Constitution Development Stages : The Government combined into three segments, Legislative, Executive and Judicial.  B.C Rawat determined into 6 stages. 

1) 1600 - 1773 

2) 1773 - 1858

3) 1858 - 1909

4) 1909 - 1935

5) 1935 - 1947

6) 1947 +


1) First Stage (1600 to 1773) : 

  • 'EIC' has three states Bengal, Bombay, Madras. 
  • British Government Sent Governor "General Bugorin" For Investigation EIC. 
2) Second Stage (1773 - 1858 )  : 
  • 1773 Regulation Act : 
    1. From the Regulation Act British Government has been regulating EIC , and gave 20 years for doing business. 
    2. This was the First ACT From this Bombay and Madras joined in the Calcutta , From there Calcutta was begin Capital for India. 
    3. From this ACT Bengal Governor was Changed to "Bengal Governor General" . 
    4. From this ACT Mayor Court was Introduced at Port William in Calcutta. 
    5. In this Supreme Court 1 Chief Justice and three Justices are placed.
      • Note : First Bengal Governor General was " Waren HeyStrings"  in 1772 He Introduced "Collector" Post for first time. 
      • Note : First Chief Justice was " Sir Eliza Empe" . 
  • 1784 Pit's India Act : 
    1. In 1784 Sir William Pits Senior was British P.M, so it's called Pits India Act
    2. This ACT was introduced for correcting 1773 Regulating act . 
    3. From this ACT : 
      1. Business - Court of  Directors. 
      2. Politics - Board of Control. 
  • 1793 Charter ACT : 
    1. Charter Means Aggrement, 
    2. From this ACT Municipalities were made First time in India. 
  • 1813 Charter ACT : 
    1. British Government Cancelled EIC Business and given Every  British Citizen to business in Inida, Except Tea and with China . 
    2. In this ACT Chirstian Minorities came into Existenceand given Rs 1 Lakh per year. 
  • 1833 Charter Act : 
    1. This was the Important in British Government. 
    2. Bengal Governor General was Cancelled and started as Indian Governor General . 
    3. In this ACT Governor General Council a "LAW Member" was Introduced. 
    4. LAW Commission was Introduced .
      1. Note : 
      2. i) First Indian Gevernor General : "William bentick"
      3. ii) First LAW Member : "Lord Machaley".
      4. iii) First LAW Commission Chairman : Lord Machaley". 
  • 1853 Charter ACT : 
    1. From this Act Indians got place in Legislative Council
    2. In this ACT Introduced Civil Services Examination. 
    3. Civil Procedure Court - 1859
    4. Indian Penal Court - 1860
    5. Criminal Procedure Court - 1861
Third Stage : (1858 - 1909) : First Independence Revolt - 1857 - "V.D Sawarkar". 
  • 1858 Indian Government Act : 
    1. British Government Banned EIC For Not Letting 1857 Revolt. , From this British Government directly handed. 
    2. In this ACT "Governor General of India" was Replaced by Indian Governor General.
    3. Indian Council was Formed and First Minister : "Sir Charless Wood".
    4. British Queen was made highest pirority .
      1. Note : First British Viceroy :"Lord Carning". 
  • 1861 Indian Council ACT : 
    1. In this Act first time states having Legislative Councils. 
    2. This Act includes Kings and Jamindars in Constitution of India. 
    3. "Port Folio" was Introduced in this act by Lord Carning. 
    4. By this ACT High Court was introduced at Port William 
    5. After Calcutta, Bombay, Madras High courts Allahabad High Court was Formed in 1866.
  • 1892 Indian Council ACT : 
    1. First time Indirect Elections are Formed.
    2. Budget was Introduced in Indian Constitution. 
    3. Budget was divided into 2 parts, 1) General Budget, 2) Railway Budget
    4. In this act 10 - 16 members increased in Parishad. 
  • Fourth Stage (1909 - 1935) - 1909 Indian Council ACT : 
    1. This ACT was called as Minto - Marley Reforms. (Viceroy - Governor General)
    2. In this ACT Muslims got Special Constitutions. 
    3. Minto was called as Father of Religious Constitutions. 
    4. This act got Direct Elections 
    5. In this act 16 - 60 members increased in Parishad. 
    6. SP Singha (Satendra Prasad Singha) Law Member in Governor General Legislative.
    7. In this ACT Imperial Legislator was formed. 
  • 1919 Indian Government ACT : 
    1. This ACT Started in 1921. 
    2. This ACT was called as MountFord (Manteg - Chames Ford) ( Minister - Voceroy)
    3. Dual Government was formed. 
    4. Bi-Cameral Legislator was Formed.
    5. Dual government means (Legislative Assembly - Council of States).
    6. Legislative Assembly Protem Speaker was Sir Fedrik White.
    7. First Chairman for Legislative Assembly was V.J Patel.
    8. First Chairman for Council of states was Sir Fedrik White. 
    9. Indian High Commissioner was Formed. 
    10. Sikhs, Indian Chirstians, Anglo Indians got special Constitutions. 
    11. Public service Commission was Formed.
    12. First Chairman For Public Service Commission was Sir Rass Barker.
    13. State Budget was Divided from Central Budget. 
    14. State Government was given complete authority in State Budget. 
    15. Public Accounts Commity was Formed
    16. This ACT was called Partial Response . 
  • Simon Commission - 1927 :
    1. Sir John Commission (6+1) was came to check Indian Government ACT. 
    2. First Checked in Bombay
    3. No Indian was Placed in the Commission, So all parties Refused Simon Commission. 
    4. Tanguturi Prakassam Pantulu was named as "Andhra Kesari" in chennai for Protesting Simon Commission. 
    5. Simon gave Report in 1930.
    6. Key Concepts : 
      1. Cancel Dual Government and form Single Government. 
      2. Round Table Conference were formed in London .
        1. 1st Round table - 1930
        2. 2nd Round table - 1931
        3. 3rd Round Table  - 1932
    7. Only B.R Ambedkar was in the three Conference. 
    8. 2nd Round Table on Behalf of Women : Sarojini Naidu
    9. 2nd Round Table on Behalf of INC : Mahatma Gandhi.
    10. By these Reforms and conferences 1935 Indian Government was Formed. 
  • Fifth Stage (1935 - 1947) : 1935 Indian Government ACT : 
    1. In this ACT 321 Provisions , 10 Shedules were formed. 
    2. This ACT was called as Duplicate for Indian Constitution , 
    3. All India Federation formed in this ACT. 
    4. Central and State Governments are formed , Duties are divided. 
    5. Written Constitution, Strong Constitution, 
    6. Freedom for the states and Law Members
      1. Central Government - 59 Duties
      2. State Government - 54 Duties
      3. Both Government  - 36 Duties
    7. Central Powers are given to Governor General
    8. 1935 Oct 1, Federal Court was formed in Delhi
    9. RBI was Formed in Bombay
    10. SC, ST, Women Quota in Government
    11. Central Government Job Holders
      1. Central Government - Federal Public Service Commission
      2. State Government - Province PSC
      3. 2 / More states - Joint PSC
  • 1942 Crips Commission : 
    1. British Sent to ask permission for having help in 2nd world war , 1942 March 22 Crips came. 
    2. Proposals : If Indians help then they will give Domain Status. 
    3. Mahatma Gandhi States that Crips commission as "Post Dated Checks".
  • 1946 Cabinet Mission :
    1. Labour Party Head "Lord Clament Atli"sent cabinet meeting in 1946 Mar 23rd.
      1. Lord Bethick Lawrence (President)
      2. Sir Staford crips
      3. Alexander A.V
  • 6th Stage (1947 - 1950) - 1947 Indian Independence ACT : 
    1. This ACT was /made by Mount.Batton (June 3rd 1947)
    2. 1947 Independence Bill Placed in British Parliament on July 5th, 1947.
    3. Parliament Bill Passed on July 15th 1947. 
    4. July 18th 1947 got Seal and Signature.
    5. Indian Flag accepted on July 22nd 1947.
    6. Independence Freedom Statement was given by "Lord Mount Battan".
    7. 562 Dynasties were there when Independence came.'
    8. First Governor General for India " Lord Mount Batton"
    9. First and Last Indian Governor General "C.Raja Gopala Chari".

Subject : Key Concepts in Indian Constitution  : Constitution of India

Original title : भारतीय संविधान (IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna), 

Ratified : 26 November 1949, 

Date effective : 26 January 1950, 

System : Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic

Branches : Three (Executive, Legislature and Judiciary)

Chambers : Two (Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha)

Executive : Prime minister-led cabinet responsible to the lower house of the parliament

Judiciary : Supreme court, high courts and district courts

Federalism : Federal

Electoral college : Yes, for presidential and vice-presidential elections

Entrenchments - 2

Amendments - 104

Last amended - 25 January 2020 (104th)

Location - Parliament House, New Delhi, India

Author's For Indian Constitution : 

Chairman of the Drafting Committee - B. R. Ambedkar, 

Constitutional Advisor to the Constituent Assembly - Benegal Narsing Rau, 

Chief Draftsman of the Constituent Assembly - Surendra Nath Mukherjee, 

Signatories 284 members of the Constituent Assembly

Supersedes : Government of India Act 1935 , Indian Independence Act 1947

Parts - 22

Articles - 395. 

Note : Parts of the Indian Constitution added as Amendments

Three parts – 9A Municipalities, 9B Co-operative societies and 14A tribunals – are added to the original constitution via amendments.

Various articles were also added under these, Now it's 25 parts of Indian constitution as amendments. At present, the total article count is around 450.

Schedules of Indian Constitution : 

Original Indian Constitution had 8 schedules. After various amendments, now the Indian Constitution has 12 schedules.

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